Park City, UT

3 days / 6 talks
Current Issues in Spine

February 2-4, 2017
Rush University

Richard Fessler

Professor, Department of Neurological Surgery at Rush University Medical School in Chicago.

Dr. Fessler completed his Medical Doctorate with honors, and he did surgical and neurosurgical residencies at the University of Chicago. In addition to surgical training, Dr. Fessler completed a Doctorate of Philosophy in Pharmacology and Physiology, and a Masters of Science in Psychology. Continuing education after earning doctoral degrees, Dr. Fessler held research fellowships at the University of Chicago Medical Center in Neurological Surgery and Psychiatry. The Chicago Surgical Society honored Dr. Fessler with the Excellence in Surgical Research award.

Dr. Fessler has made significant contributions to endoscopic and microendoscopic surgical developments. The Kambin Foundation awarded Dr. Fessler the annual research award for his research in the field of minimal invasive spinal surgery.

Dr. Fessler is a member of the International Society of Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery, Lumbar Spine Study Group, Neurosurgical Society of America, and Selby Spine Society.

A prolific author, Dr. Fessler has written books and contributed book chapters to medical texts. He has published articles in peer-reviewed journals and presented numerous papers at peer-reviewed symposiums. He is frequently invited for speaking engagements and visiting professorships worldwide.



Lumbar Discectomy: Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery

This article gives a step-by-step overview of what happens during lumbar microdiscectomy surgery, which is a minimally-invasive surgical procedure used to treat herniated discs.

Video: Microendoscopic Spinal Surgery

Dr. Richard Fessler, a pioneer in minimally invasive spine surgery, explains the various techniques. He discusses microendoscopic spinal surgery in this video.

Video: Surgery for Degenerative Disc Disease

Dr. Richard Fessler, a neurosurgeon and proponent of minimally invasive surgery, discusses the various types of surgeries.

Lower Back Pain Treatments

Lower back pain treatments overview from a spine specialist: medications, physical therapy, and spine surgery. What will help with your low back pain?

Alpha-Linolenic Acid (ALA)

Alpha-linolenic acid is the parent substance of essential omega-3 fatty acids, which helps to regulate blood pressure, blood clotting, heart rate, blood vessel dilation, immune response, and the break down of fats.

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Treated Using Minimally Invasive Microsurgical Techniques

Read this article from spine surgeons on microendoscopic laminectomy, a minimally invasive spine surgery option for spinal stenosis. Should you have it, or open spine surgery?

Common Terms for Degenerative Disc Disease

Dr. Richard Fessler, a neurosurgeon, reviews several common terms you may hear your doctor use when talking about degenerative disc disease. This short video will help you be an informed patient and more fully understand your condition.

Lumbar Discectomy: Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery

Back pain and sciatica may result from a herniated disc. Learn what happens when a disc ruptures and what non-surgical and surgical treatments are available.

Pre-operative Steps to Spinal Surgery

Most patients who undergo spinal surgery have weeks or months to prepare for their procedure. It’s important to learn as much as you can about your spine surgery. In this article, you will learn about the pre-operative steps to help you prepare for your procedure.

Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery: Lumbar Discectomy

Post operative care and what to expect at home following a Micro Endoscopic Discectomy (MED) procedure for treatment of a herniated disc.

Vertebroplasty: A Case Study

Compression fractures (osteoporosis) may be treated using a procedure called vertebroplasty. This article helps patients to know what to expect and includes a case study.

Low Back Pain Diagnosis

5 steps to a lower back pain diagnosis: What will the doctor do to find out what’s causing your pain? Article written and reviewed by spine surgeons.


Case Studies

Severe Back Pain with Radiation Around Right Abdomen

Presented by: R. Fessler MD, PhD

Spine case from Richard G. Fessler, MD, PhD, a neurosurgeon: The patient is a 39-year-old male who presents with severe back pain that radiates around right abdomen to just below the navel.

Left C5-C6 Foraminal Disc Herniation

Presented by: R. Fessler MD, PhD

The patient is a male over 60 years of age, who reports that he had an episode of extremely severe right arm and hand pain beginning approximately 3 months ago. That pain was initially treated with a collar and pain medication but, with no relief. Epidural injections were then attempted and did provide temporary pain relief.

Neck Pain with Radiation into Right Radial Arm

Presented by: R. Fessler MD, PhD

How would you treat this? The patient is a 43-year-old female with neck pain with radiation into the right radial arm, thumb and first finger, and ulnar forearm into small and ring finger. Richard G. Fessler, MD, PhD, presents this spine surgery case.

Foreign Diplomat with Neck Pain and Right C6 and C7 Radiculopathies

Presented by: R. Fessler MD, PhD

A 59-year-old male who is a foreign diplomat presents with neck pain and right C6 and C7 radiculopathies.

T5 Burst Fracture from MVA

Can the patient ever return to farming?
Presented by: R. Fessler MD, PhD

The patient is a 52-year-old female. Six months before presenting in the clinic, she was involved in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). She now can’t work her farm because of her back pain.

Lumbar Degenerative Scoliosis in a 69-year-old Female

Presented by: R. Fessler MD, PhD

The patient is a 69-year-old Asian female who presents with progressively more severe low back pain.

Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease in a Basketball Player

Presented by: R. Fessler MD, PhD

This young man’s chances for a professional career as a basketball player is jeopardized by low back pain.

Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease in a 37-year-old Male

Presented by: R. Fessler MD, PhD

The patient previously underwent lumbar microendoscopic discectomy two years ago and was doing very well until he fell down a flight of stairs.

Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease: History of Low Back Pain

Presented by: R. Fessler MD, PhD

The patient is a 62-year-old make with a three year history of low back pain that prevents normal activities. Although leg pain is minimal, it is increased with activity and decreases when lying down

Constant, Nonradiating Low Back Pain

Presented by: R. Fessler MD, PhD

Although the patient has reported intermittent low back pain during years past, now her pain has become constant but does not radiate.

Competitive Equestrienne: Incapacitating Low Back Pain

Presented by: R. Fessler MD, PhD

Case about a 32-year-old female equestrienne with incapacitating low back pain unresponsive to non-surgical care.

Cervical Radiculopathy: Classic Case?

Presented by: R. Fessler MD, PhD

The patient is a 45-year-old male with a 3-month history of neck, shoulder and arm pain.

Cervical Degenerative Disease

Presented by: R. Fessler MD, PhD

This 67-year-old male presented with neck pain with mild radiation into both shoulders. He had slight difficulty with tandem gait.

Gait and Balance Difficulties in a 76-Year-old Male

Presented by: R. Fessler MD, PhD

The patient is a 76-year-old male whose gait is broad-based and unsteady; he cannot tandem walk.



1: Khanna R, McDevitt JL, Abecassis ZA, Smith ZA, Koski TR, Fessler RG, Dahdaleh
NS. An outcome and cost analysis comparing single-level minimally invasive
transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion using intraoperative fluoroscopy versus
CT-guided navigation. World Neurosurg. 2016 Jul 13. pii: S1878-8750(16)30536-8.
doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2016.07.014. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 27423195.

2: Nunley PD, Fessler RG, Park P, Zavatsky JM, Mundis GM, Uribe JS, Eastlack R,
Nguyen S, Chou D, Wang MY, Anand N, Kanter AS, Shaffrey CI, Mummaneni PV;
International Spine Study Group. 371 How Do Case Type, Length of Stay, and
Comorbidities Affect Medicare Diagnosis-Related Group Reimbursement for Minimally
Invasive Surgery for Deformity? Neurosurgery. 2016 Aug;63 Suppl 1:210. doi:
10.1227/01.neu.0000489859.16182.49. PubMed PMID: 27399568.

3: Jani VB, To CY, Patel A, Kelkar PS, Richards B, Fessler RD. 116 Effect of
Annual Hospital Procedure Volume on Outcomes After Mechanical Thrombectomy in
Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients: An Analysis of 13 502 Procedures. Neurosurgery.
2016 Aug;63 Suppl 1:149. doi: 10.1227/01.neu.0000489687.21464.9f. PubMed PMID:

4: Adogwa O, Sure DR, LaBagnara M, Shaffrey CI, Fessler RG. Minimally Invasive
Spine Surgery and Sagittal Correction. Neurosurgery. 2016 Aug;63 Suppl 1:31-6.
doi: 10.1227/NEU.0000000000001290. PubMed PMID: 27399361.

5: Harwell DM, Gibson JL, Fessler RD, Holtz J, Pettigrew DB, Kuntz C 4th. Pia
Mater Significantly Contributes to Spinal Cord Intraparenchymal Pressure in a
Simulated Model of Edema. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2016 May;41(9):E524-9. doi:
10.1097/BRS.0000000000001306. PubMed PMID: 27128257.

6: Witiw CD, Mansouri A, Mathieu F, Nassiri F, Badhiwala JH, Fessler RG.
Exploring the expectation-actuality discrepancy: a systematic review of the
impact of preoperative expectations on satisfaction and patient reported outcomes
in spinal surgery. Neurosurg Rev. 2016 Apr 7. [Epub ahead of print] Review.
PubMed PMID: 27053222.

7: Than KD, Park P, Fu KM, Nguyen S, Wang MY, Chou D, Nunley PD, Anand N, Fessler
RG, Shaffrey CI, Bess S, Akbarnia BA, Deviren V, Uribe JS, La Marca F, Kanter AS,
Okonkwo DO, Mundis GM Jr, Mummaneni PV; International Spine Study Group. Clinical
and radiographic parameters associated with best versus worst clinical outcomes
in minimally invasive spinal deformity surgery. J Neurosurg Spine. 2016
Jul;25(1):21-5. doi: 10.3171/2015.12.SPINE15999. Epub 2016 Mar 4. PubMed PMID:

8: Samartzis D, Gillis CC, Shih P, O’Toole JE, Fessler RG. Intramedullary Spinal
Cord Tumors: Part II-Management Options and Outcomes. Global Spine J. 2016
Mar;6(2):176-85. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1550086. Epub 2015 Jul 9. Review. PubMed
PMID: 26933620; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4771497.

9: Hamilton DK, Kanter AS, Bolinger BD, Mundis GM Jr, Nguyen S, Mummaneni PV,
Anand N, Fessler RG, Passias PG, Park P, La Marca F, Uribe JS, Wang MY, Akbarnia
BA, Shaffrey CI, Okonkwo DO; International Spine Study Group (ISSG). Reoperation
rates in minimally invasive, hybrid and open surgical treatment for adult spinal
deformity with minimum 2-year follow-up. Eur Spine J. 2016 Aug;25(8):2605-11.
doi: 10.1007/s00586-016-4443-2. Epub 2016 Feb 24. PubMed PMID: 26909764.

10: Park P, Wang MY, Nguyen S, Mundis GM Jr, La Marca F, Uribe JS, Anand N,
Okonkwo DO, Kanter AS, Fessler R, Eastlack RK, Chou D, Deviren V, Nunley PD,
Shaffrey CI, Mummaneni PV; International Spine Study Group. Comparison of
Complications and Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes Between Nonobese and Obese
Patients with Adult Spinal Deformity Undergoing Minimally Invasive Surgery. World
Neurosurg. 2016 Mar;87:55-60. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2015.12.024. Epub 2015 Dec 25.
PubMed PMID: 26724613.

11: Khanna R, Harris DA, McDevitt JL, Fessler RG, Carabini LM, Lam SK, Dahdaleh
NS, Smith ZA. Impact of Anemia and Transfusion on Readmission and Length of Stay
After Spinal Surgery: A Single-center Study of 1187 Operations. Clin Spine Surg.
2016 Jul 14. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26584200.

12: Bakhsheshian J, Khanna R, Choy W, Lawton CD, Nixon AT, Wong AP, Koski TR, Liu
JC, Song JK, Dahdaleh NS, Smith ZA, Fessler RG. Incidence of graft extrusion
following minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. J Clin
Neurosci. 2016 Feb;24:88-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2015.09.005. Epub 2015 Nov 11.
PubMed PMID: 26578209.

13: To CY, Rajamand S, Mehra R, Falatko S, Badr Y, Richards B, Qahwash O, Fessler
RD. Outcome of mechanical thrombectomy in the very elderly for the treatment of
acute ischemic stroke: the real world experience. Acta Radiol Open. 2015 Sep
10;4(9):2058460115599423. doi: 10.1177/2058460115599423. eCollection 2015 Sep.
PubMed PMID: 26445678; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4580118.

14: Park P, Okonkwo DO, Nguyen S, Mundis GM Jr, Than KD, Deviren V, La Marca F,
Fu KM, Wang MY, Uribe JS, Anand N, Fessler R, Nunley PD, Chou D, Kanter AS,
Shaffrey CI, Akbarnia BA, Passias PG, Eastlack RK, Mummaneni PV; International
Spine Study Group. Can a Minimal Clinically Important Difference Be Achieved in
Elderly Patients with Adult Spinal Deformity Who Undergo Minimally Invasive
Spinal Surgery? World Neurosurg. 2016 Feb;86:168-72. doi:
10.1016/j.wneu.2015.09.072. Epub 2015 Sep 30. PubMed PMID: 26431736.

15: Samartzis D, Gillis CC, Shih P, O’Toole JE, Fessler RG. Intramedullary Spinal
Cord Tumors: Part I-Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Diagnosis. Global Spine J.
2015 Oct;5(5):425-35. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1549029. Epub 2015 Mar 31. Review.
PubMed PMID: 26430598; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4577312.

16: Gillis CC, Eichholz K, Thoman WJ, Fessler RG. A minimally invasive approach
to defects of the pars interarticularis: Restoring function in competitive
athletes. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2015 Dec;139:29-34. doi:
10.1016/j.clineuro.2015.08.024. Epub 2015 Aug 28. PubMed PMID: 26363364.

17: Khanna R, McDevitt JL, McClendon J Jr, Smith ZA, Dahdaleh NS, Fessler RG.
Utility of Readmission Rates as a Quality of Care Measure and Predictors of
Readmission Within 30 Days After Spinal Surgery: a Single-Center, Multivariate
Analysis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Nov;40(22):1769-74. doi:
10.1097/BRS.0000000000001146. PubMed PMID: 26352745.

18: Mummaneni PV, Park P, Fu KM, Wang MY, Nguyen S, Lafage V, Uribe JS, Ziewacz
J, Terran J, Okonkwo DO, Anand N, Fessler R, Kanter AS, LaMarca F, Deviren V,
Bess RS, Schwab FJ, Smith JS, Akbarnia BA, Mundis GM Jr, Shaffrey CI;
International Spine Study Group. Does Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Posterior
Instrumentation Reduce Risk of Proximal Junctional Kyphosis in Adult Spinal
Deformity Surgery? A Propensity-Matched Cohort Analysis. Neurosurgery. 2016
Jan;78(1):101-8. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0000000000001002. PubMed PMID: 26348014.

19: Uddin OM, Haque R, Sugrue PA, Ahmed YM, El Ahmadieh TY, Press JM, Koski T,
Fessler RG. Cost minimization in treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis. J
Neurosurg Spine. 2015 Dec;23(6):798-806. doi: 10.3171/2015.3.SPINE14560. Epub
2015 Aug 28. PubMed PMID: 26315955.

20: Wong AP, Lall RR, Dahdaleh NS, Lawton CD, Smith ZA, Wong RH, Harvey MJ, Lam
S, Koski TR, Fessler RG. Comparison of open and minimally invasive surgery for
intradural-extramedullary spine tumors. Neurosurg Focus. 2015 Aug;39(2):E11. doi:
10.3171/2015.5.FOCUS15129. PubMed PMID: 26235009.

21: Scheer JK, Khanna R, Lopez AJ, Fessler RG, Koski TR, Smith ZA, Dahdaleh NS.
The concave versus convex approach for minimally invasive lateral lumbar
interbody fusion for thoracolumbar degenerative scoliosis. J Clin Neurosci. 2015
Oct;22(10):1588-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2015.05.004. Epub 2015 Jul 9. PubMed
PMID: 26164479.

22: Cardoso AC, Fontes RB, Tan LA, Rhoton AL Jr, Roh SW, Fessler RG.
Biomechanical effects of the transcondylar approach on the craniovertebral
junction. Clin Anat. 2015 Jul;28(5):683-9. doi: 10.1002/ca.22551. Epub 2015 Apr
23. PubMed PMID: 25914225.

23: Scheer JK, Auffinger B, Wong RH, Lam SK, Lawton CD, Nixon AT, Dahdaleh NS,
Smith ZA, Fessler RG. Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion
(TLIF) for Spondylolisthesis in 282 Patients: In Situ Arthrodesis versus
Reduction. World Neurosurg. 2015 Jul;84(1):108-13. doi:
10.1016/j.wneu.2015.02.037. Epub 2015 Mar 6. PubMed PMID: 25753232.

24: Asher R, Mason AE, Weiner J, Fessler RG. The relationship between
preoperative general mental health and postoperative quality of life in minimally
invasive lumbar spine surgery. Neurosurgery. 2015 Jun;76(6):672-9. doi:
10.1227/NEU.0000000000000695. PubMed PMID: 25714515.

25: Wong AP, Smith ZA, Nixon AT, Lawton CD, Dahdaleh NS, Wong RH, Auffinger B,
Lam S, Song JK, Liu JC, Koski TR, Fessler RG. Intraoperative and perioperative
complications in minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: a
review of 513 patients. J Neurosurg Spine. 2015 May;22(5):487-95. doi:
10.3171/2014.10.SPINE14129. Epub 2015 Feb 20. PubMed PMID: 25700243.

26: Park P, Wang MY, Lafage V, Nguyen S, Ziewacz J, Okonkwo DO, Uribe JS,
Eastlack RK, Anand N, Haque R, Fessler RG, Kanter AS, Deviren V, La Marca F,
Smith JS, Shaffrey CI, Mundis GM Jr, Mummaneni PV; International Spine Study
Group. Comparison of two minimally invasive surgery strategies to treat adult
spinal deformity. J Neurosurg Spine. 2015 Apr;22(4):374-80. doi:
10.3171/2014.9.SPINE131004. Epub 2015 Jan 30. PubMed PMID: 25635632.

27: Scheer JK, Harvey MJ, Dahdaleh NS, Smith ZA, Fessler RG. K-Wire fracture
during minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: Report of six
cases and recommendations for avoidance and management. Surg Neurol Int. 2014 Dec
30;5(Suppl 15):S520-2. doi: 10.4103/2152-7806.148009. eCollection 2014. PubMed
PMID: 25593770; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4287903.

28: Mehra R, To CY, Qahwash O, Richards B, Fessler RD 2nd. Intravenous
thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke patients with negative CT perfusion: a case
series. Acta Radiol Short Rep. 2014 Aug 18;3(7):2047981614543219. doi:
10.1177/2047981614543219. eCollection 2014 Aug. PubMed PMID: 25298876; PubMed
Central PMCID: PMC4184462.

29: Fessler RD, To CY, Gordon V, Stover C, Dunne R. An innovative,
multidisciplinary, process-driven approach to acute stroke in a community health
system network. Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2014;15(3):252-65. PubMed PMID: 25290731.

30: Nixon AT, Smith ZA, Lawton CD, Wong AP, Dahdaleh NS, Koht A, Fessler RG.
Bilateral neurological deficits following unilateral minimally invasive TLIF: A
review of four patients. Surg Neurol Int. 2014 Aug 28;5(Suppl 7):S317-24. doi:
10.4103/2152-7806.139619. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 25289152; PubMed Central
PMCID: PMC4173276.

31: Smith TR, Habib A, Rosenow JM, Nahed BV, Babu MA, Cybulski G, Fessler R,
Batjer HH, Heary RF. Defensive medicine in neurosurgery: does state-level
liability risk matter? Neurosurgery. 2015 Feb;76(2):105-13; discussion 113-4.
doi: 10.1227/NEU.0000000000000576. PubMed PMID: 25255258.

32: Gerard CS, Fessler RG. Accurate pedicle screw placement–a perspective
statement. World Neurosurg. 2015 May;83(5):747-9. doi:
10.1016/j.wneu.2014.09.016. Epub 2014 Sep 17. PubMed PMID: 25238678.

33: Tan LA, Kasliwal MK, Fontes RB, Fessler RG. Local cooling for traumatic
spinal cord injury. J Neurosurg Spine. 2014 Nov;21(5):845-7. doi:
10.3171/2014.5.SPINE14472. Epub 2014 Aug 29. PubMed PMID: 25170650.

34: Haque RM, Uddin OM, Ahmed Y, El Ahmadieh TY, Hashmi SZ, Shah A, Fessler RG.
“Push-Through” Rod Passage Technique for the Improvement of Lumbar Lordosis and
Sagittal Balance in Minimally Invasive Adult Degenerative Scoliosis Surgery. Clin
Spine Surg. 2016 Jun 3. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25140537.

35: Yoon JW, Siddiqui AH, Dumont TM, Levy EI, Hopkins LN, Lanzino G, Lopes DK,
Moftakhar R, Billingsley JT, Welch BG, Boulos AS, Yamamoto J, Tawk RG, Ringer AJ,
Hanel RA; Endovascular Neurosurgery Research Group. Feasibility and safety of
pipeline embolization device in patients with ruptured carotid blister aneurysms.
Neurosurgery. 2014 Oct;75(4):419-29; discussion 429. doi:
10.1227/NEU.0000000000000487. PubMed PMID: 24991709.

36: Snyder LA, O’Toole J, Eichholz KM, Perez-Cruet MJ, Fessler R. The
technological development of minimally invasive spine surgery. Biomed Res Int.
2014;2014:293582. doi: 10.1155/2014/293582. Epub 2014 May 21. Review. PubMed
PMID: 24967347; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4055392.

37: Tan LA, Kasliwal MK, Fessler RG. Minimally invasive versus open laminotomy.
Spine J. 2014 Jun 1;14(6):1081-2. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2013.12.030. PubMed PMID:

38: Mummaneni PV, Shaffrey CI, Lenke LG, Park P, Wang MY, La Marca F, Smith JS,
Mundis GM Jr, Okonkwo DO, Moal B, Fessler RG, Anand N, Uribe JS, Kanter AS,
Akbarnia B, Fu KM; Minimally Invasive Surgery Section of the International Spine
Study Group. The minimally invasive spinal deformity surgery algorithm: a
reproducible rational framework for decision making in minimally invasive spinal
deformity surgery. Neurosurg Focus. 2014 May;36(5):E6. doi:
10.3171/2014.3.FOCUS1413. PubMed PMID: 24785488.

39: Uribe JS, Deukmedjian AR, Mummaneni PV, Fu KM, Mundis GM Jr, Okonkwo DO,
Kanter AS, Eastlack R, Wang MY, Anand N, Fessler RG, La Marca F, Park P, Lafage
V, Deviren V, Bess S, Shaffrey CI; International Spine Study Group. Complications
in adult spinal deformity surgery: an analysis of minimally invasive, hybrid, and
open surgical techniques. Neurosurg Focus. 2014 May;36(5):E15. doi:
10.3171/2014.3.FOCUS13534. PubMed PMID: 24785480.

40: Haque RM, Mundis GM Jr, Ahmed Y, El Ahmadieh TY, Wang MY, Mummaneni PV, Uribe
JS, Okonkwo DO, Eastlack RK, Anand N, Kanter AS, La Marca F, Akbarnia BA, Park P,
Lafage V, Terran JS, Shaffrey CI, Klineberg E, Deviren V, Fessler RG;
International Spine Study Group. Comparison of radiographic results after
minimally invasive, hybrid, and open surgery for adult spinal deformity: a
multicenter study of 184 patients. Neurosurg Focus. 2014 May;36(5):E13. doi:
10.3171/2014.3.FOCUS1424. PubMed PMID: 24785478.

41: Wang MY, Mummaneni PV, Fu KM, Anand N, Okonkwo DO, Kanter AS, La Marca F,
Fessler R, Uribe J, Shaffrey CI, Lafage V, Haque RM, Deviren V, Mundis GM Jr;
Minimally Invasive Surgery Section of the International Spine Study Group. Less
invasive surgery for treating adult spinal deformities: ceiling effects for
deformity correction with 3 different techniques. Neurosurg Focus. 2014
May;36(5):E12. doi: 10.3171/2014.3.FOCUS1423. PubMed PMID: 24785477.

42: Smith ZA, Fessler RG. Minimally invasive spine surgery. Preface. Neurosurg
Clin N Am. 2014 Apr;25(2):xiii. doi: 10.1016/ PubMed PMID:

43: Dahdaleh NS, Smith ZA, Snyder LA, Graham RB, Fessler RG, Koski TR. Lateral
transpsoas lumbar interbody fusion: outcomes and deformity correction. Neurosurg
Clin N Am. 2014 Apr;25(2):353-60. doi: 10.1016/ Review. PubMed
PMID: 24703453.

44: Snyder LA, Smith ZA, Dahdaleh NS, Fessler RG. Minimally invasive treatment of
thoracic disc herniations. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2014 Apr;25(2):271-7. doi:
10.1016/ Epub 2014 Feb 1. Review. PubMed PMID: 24703446.

45: Smith ZA, Fessler RG. Nonexpandable tubular retractors and spinal tumors. J
Neurosurg Spine. 2014 Jun;20(6):769-70. doi: 10.3171/2013.12.SPINE131139. Epub
2014 Apr 4. PubMed PMID: 24702508.

46: Smith ZA, Vastardis GA, Carandang G, Havey RM, Hannon S, Dahdaleh N, Voronov
LI, Fessler RG, Patwardhan AG. Biomechanical effects of a unilateral approach to
minimally invasive lumbar decompression. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 21;9(3):e92611. doi:
10.1371/journal.pone.0092611. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 24658010; PubMed
Central PMCID: PMC3962436.

47: Skovrlj B, Gologorsky Y, Haque R, Fessler RG, Qureshi SA. Complications,
outcomes, and need for fusion after minimally invasive posterior cervical
foraminotomy and microdiscectomy. Spine J. 2014 Oct 1;14(10):2405-11. doi:
10.1016/j.spinee.2014.01.048. Epub 2014 Jan 30. PubMed PMID: 24486472.

48: Hardin CA, Nimjee SM, Karikari IO, Agrawal A, Fessler RG, Isaacs RE.
Percutaneous pedicle screw placement in the thoracic spine: A cadaveric study.
Asian J Neurosurg. 2013 Jul;8(3):153-6. doi: 10.4103/1793-5482.121687. PubMed
PMID: 24403958; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3877502.

49: Mokin M, Khalessi AA, Mocco J, Lanzino G, Dumont TM, Hanel RA, Lopes DK,
Fessler RD 2nd, Ringer AJ, Bendok BR, Veznedaroglu E, Siddiqui AH, Hopkins LN,
Levy EI. Endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke: the end or just the
beginning? Neurosurg Focus. 2014 Jan;36(1):E5. doi: 10.3171/2013.10.FOCUS13374.
Review. PubMed PMID: 24380482.

50: Wong AP, Shih P, Smith TR, Slimack NP, Dahdaleh NS, Aoun SG, El Ahmadieh TY,
Smith ZA, Scheer JK, Koski TR, Liu JC, Fessler RG. Comparison of symptomatic
cerebral spinal fluid leak between patients undergoing minimally invasive versus
open lumbar foraminotomy, discectomy, or laminectomy. World Neurosurg. 2014
Mar-Apr;81(3-4):634-40. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2013.11.012. Epub 2013 Nov 13. PubMed
PMID: 24239738.

51: Smith ZA, Dahdaleh NS, Wong AP, Aoun SG, El Ahmadieh TY, Nixon AT, Bendok BR,
Fessler RG. Minimally invasive tubular microdiscectomy: a 3-dimensional operative
video. Neurosurgery. 2013 Dec;73(2 Suppl Operative):ons142. doi:
10.1227/NEU.0000000000000185. PubMed PMID: 24193359.

52: Wong AP, Dahdaleh NS, Fessler RG, Melkonian SC, Lin Y, Smith ZA, Lam SK. Risk
factors and long-term survival in adult patients with primary malignant spinal
cord astrocytomas. J Neurooncol. 2013 Dec;115(3):493-503. doi:
10.1007/s11060-013-1296-y. PubMed PMID: 24158670.

53: Smith ZA, Lawton CD, Wong AP, Dahdaleh NS, Nixon AT, Ganju A, Fessler RG.
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54: Bresnahan LE, Smith JS, Ogden AT, Quinn S, Cybulski GR, Simonian N, Natarajan
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55: Wong AP, Dahdaleh NS, Fessler RG, Melkonian SC, Lin Y, Smith ZA, Lam SK. Risk
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56: Lawton CD, Smith ZA, Nixon AT, Dahdaleh NS, Wong AP, Khanna R, Barnawi A,
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57: Dahdaleh NS, Nixon AT, Lawton CD, Wong AP, Smith ZA, Fessler RG. Outcome
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58: Auffinger BM, Lall RR, Dahdaleh NS, Wong AP, Lam SK, Koski T, Fessler RG,
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59: Haque RM, Hashmi SZ, Ahmed Y, Uddin O, Ogden AT, Fessler R. Primary dural
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60: Dahdaleh NS, Wong AP, Smith ZA, Wong RH, Lam SK, Fessler RG. Microendoscopic
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61: Dahdaleh NS, Lawton CD, El Ahmadieh TY, Nixon AT, El Tecle NE, Oh S, Fessler
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62: Mokin M, Dumont TM, Veznedaroglu E, Binning MJ, Liebman KM, Fessler RD 2nd,
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63: Smith ZA, Wong AP, El Ahmadieh TY, Aoun SG, Haque R, Bendok BB, Fessler RG.
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64: Mokin M, Dumont TM, Veznedaroglu E, Binning MJ, Liebman KM, Fessler RD 2nd,
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Kan P, Gaughen JR Jr, Lanzino G, Lopes DK, Chen M, Moftakhar R, Billingsley JT,
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65: Derdeyn CP, Fiorella D, Lynn MJ, Rumboldt Z, Cloft HJ, Gibson D, Turan TN,
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66: Fessler RG, Smith ZA, Slimack N, Smith JS, Parkinson RJ. Current advances and
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67: Lawton CD, Smith ZA, Lam SK, Habib A, Wong RH, Fessler RG. Clinical outcomes
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68: Smith ZA, Aoun SG, Y El Ahmadieh T, Wong AP, Lall RR, Bendok BR, Fessler RG.
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an operative 3-D video. Neurosurgery. 2013 Sep;73(1 Suppl Operative):ons1. doi:
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69: Lall RR, Lall RR, Hauptman JS, Munoz C, Cybulski GR, Koski T, Ganju A,
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70: Smith JS, Eichholz KM, Shafizadeh S, Ogden AT, O’Toole JE, Fessler RG.
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case series. World Neurosurg. 2013 Sep-Oct;80(3-4):421-7. doi:
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71: Lawton CD, Nagasawa DT, Yang I, Fessler RG, Smith ZA. Leptomeningeal spinal
metastases from glioblastoma multiforme: treatment and management of an uncommon
manifestation of disease. J Neurosurg Spine. 2012 Nov;17(5):438-48. doi:
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72: Habib A, Smith ZA, Lawton CD, Fessler RG. Minimally invasive transforaminal
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73: Wong AP, Smith ZA, Lall RR, Bresnahan LE, Fessler RG. The microendoscopic
decompression of lumbar stenosis: a review of the current literature and clinical
results. Minim Invasive Surg. 2012;2012:325095. doi: 10.1155/2012/325095. Epub
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74: Lall RR, Smith ZA, Wong AP, Miller D, Fessler RG. Minimally invasive thoracic
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pathologies. Minim Invasive Surg. 2012;2012:213791. doi: 10.1155/2012/213791.
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75: Lawton CD, Smith ZA, Sugimoto K, Smith JS, Fessler RG. Cervical spinal cord
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76: Smith ZA, Fessler RG, Batjer HH. Perspective–sacral Tarlov cyst: surgical
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77: Ringer AJ, Khalessi AA, Mocco J, Boulos A, Welch B, Siddiqui AH, Lopes D,
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78: Smith ZA, Fessler RG. Paradigm changes in spine surgery: evolution of
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79: Smith ZA, Sugimoto K, Lawton CD, Fessler RG. Incidence of lumbar spine
pedicle breach after percutaneous screw fixation: a radiographic evaluation of
601 screws in 151 patients. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2014 Oct;27(7):358-63. doi:
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80: Smith TR, Slimack N, McClendon J Jr, Wong A, Fessler RG. Low back pain and
lumbar radiculopathy as harbingers of acute myeloid leukemia recurrence in a
patient with myeloid sarcoma. J Clin Neurosci. 2012 Jul;19(7):1040-1. doi:
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81: Lee P, Fessler RG. Perioperative and postoperative complications of
single-level minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion in elderly
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82: Powers WJ, Clarke WR, Grubb RL Jr, Videen TO, Adams HP Jr, Derdeyn CP; COSS
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83: Moller DJ, Slimack NP, Acosta FL Jr, Koski TR, Fessler RG, Liu JC. Minimally
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84: Shih P, Slimack NP, Roy A, Fessler RG, Koski TR. Abdominal complications
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85: Lee P, Liu JC, Fessler RG. Perioperative results following open and minimally
invasive single-level lumbar discectomy. J Clin Neurosci. 2011
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86: Shih P, Wong AP, Smith TR, Lee AI, Fessler RG. Complications of open compared
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87: Shih P, Smith TR, Fessler RG, Song JK. Minimally invasive discectomy for the
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88: Acosta FL, Liu J, Slimack N, Moller D, Fessler R, Koski T. Changes in coronal
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89: Bresnahan L, Fessler RG, Natarajan RN. Evaluation of change in muscle
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system. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 Jul 15;35(16):E761-7. doi:
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90: Thomas JA, Tredway T, Fessler RG, Sandhu FA. An alternate method for
placement of C-1 screws. J Neurosurg Spine. 2010 Apr;12(4):337-41. doi:
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91: Ogden AT, Eichholz K, O’toole J, Smith JS, Gala V, Voyadzis JM, Sugimoto K,
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92: Smith JS, Ogden AT, Shafizadeh S, Fessler RG. Clinical outcomes after
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93: Ogden AT, Fessler RG. Minimally invasive resection of intramedullary
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94: O’Toole JE, Eichholz KM, Fessler RG. Surgical site infection rates after
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95: Hurley MC, Kaakaji R, Dabus G, Shaibani A, Walker MT, Fessler RG, Bendok BR.
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96: Lozen A, Manjila S, Rhiew R, Fessler R. Y-stent-assisted coil embolization
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97: Yahia AM, Latorre J, Gordon V, Whapham J, Malek A, Fessler RD. Thromboembolic
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98: Kim DH, O’Toole JE, Ogden AT, Eichholz KM, Song J, Christie SD, Fessler RG.
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99: Bresnahan L, Ogden AT, Natarajan RN, Fessler RG. A biomechanical evaluation
of graded posterior element removal for treatment of lumbar stenosis: comparison
of a minimally invasive approach with two standard laminectomy techniques. Spine
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100: Ogden AT, Bresnahan L, Smith JS, Natarajan R, Fessler RG. Biomechanical
comparison of traditional and minimally invasive intradural tumor exposures using
finite element analysis. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2009 Feb;24(2):143-7. doi:
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101: Heller JG, Sasso RC, Papadopoulos SM, Anderson PA, Fessler RG, Hacker RJ,
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anterior cervical decompression and fusion: clinical and radiographic results of
a randomized, controlled, clinical trial. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Jan
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102: Rosen DS, Ferguson SD, Ogden AT, Huo D, Fessler RG. Obesity and
self-reported outcome after minimally invasive lumbar spinal fusion surgery.
Neurosurgery. 2008 Nov;63(5):956-60; discussion 960. doi:
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103: Voyadzis JM, Gala VC, O’Toole JE, Eichholz KM, Fessler RG. Minimally
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104: Smith JS, Ogden AT, Fessler RG. Minimally invasive posterior thoracic
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105: Hsieh PC, Koski TR, Sciubba DM, Moller DJ, O’Shaughnessy BA, Li KW, Gokaslan
ZL, Ondra SL, Fessler RG, Liu JC. Maximizing the potential of minimally invasive
spine surgery in complex spinal disorders. Neurosurg Focus. 2008;25(2):E19. doi:
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106: Zwienenberg-Lee M, Hartman J, Rudisill N, Madden LK, Smith K, Eskridge J,
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Muizelaar JP; Balloon Prophylaxis for Aneurysmal Vasospasm (BPAV) Study Group.
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107: O’Toole JE, Eichholz KM, Fessler RG. Minimally invasive insertion of
syringosubarachnoid shunt for posttraumatic syringomyelia: technical case report.
Neurosurgery. 2007 Nov;61(5 Suppl 2):E331-2; discussion E332. doi:
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108: Yahia AM, Gordon V, Whapham J, Malek A, Steel J, Fessler RD. Complications
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109: Yahia AM, Gordon V, Whapham J, Malek A, Rehman M, Fessler RD. Sapphire
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110: O’Toole JE, Eichholz KM, Fessler RG. Minimally invasive far lateral
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junction: cadaveric dissection and technical case report. Spine J. 2007
Jul-Aug;7(4):414-21. Epub 2007 Jan 30. Review. PubMed PMID: 17630139.

111: Gala VC, O’Toole JE, Voyadzis JM, Fessler RG. Posterior minimally invasive
approaches for the cervical spine. Orthop Clin North Am. 2007 Jul;38(3):339-49;
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112: Fessler RG. The evolving presence of spinal neurosurgery in the spectrum of
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113: Rosen DS, O’Toole JE, Eichholz KM, Hrubes M, Huo D, Sandhu FA, Fessler RG.
Minimally invasive lumbar spinal decompression in the elderly: outcomes of 50
patients aged 75 years and older. Neurosurgery. 2007 Mar;60(3):503-9; discussion
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114: Tredway TL, Musleh W, Christie SD, Khavkin Y, Fessler RG, Curry DJ. A novel
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Feb;60(2 Suppl 1):ONS70-4; discussion ONS74. PubMed PMID: 17297368.

115: Santiago P, Fessler RG. Minimally invasive surgery for the management of
cervical spondylosis. Neurosurgery. 2007 Jan;60(1 Supp1 1):S160-5. PubMed PMID:

116: Eichholz KM, O’Toole JE, Christie SD, Fessler RG. Vertebroplasty and
kyphoplasty. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2006 Oct;17(4):507-18. Review. PubMed PMID:

117: O’Toole JE, Eichholz KM, Fessler RG. Minimally invasive approaches to
vertebral column and spinal cord tumors. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2006
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118: Eichholz KM, O’Toole JE, Fessler RG. Thoracic microendoscopic discectomy.
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119: O’Toole JE, Sheikh H, Eichholz KM, Fessler RG, Perez-Cruet MJ. Endoscopic
posterior cervical foraminotomy and discectomy. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2006
Oct;17(4):411-22. Review. PubMed PMID: 17010891.

120: Fessler RG, O’Toole JE, Eichholz KM, Perez-Cruet MJ. The development of
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121: O’Toole JE, Eichholz KM, Fessler RG. Minimally invasive spine surgery.
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122: Eichholz KM, Fessler RG. Is the X STOP interspinous implant a safe and
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123: Song JK, Musleh W, Christie SD, Fessler RG. Cervical juxtafacet cysts: case
report and literature review. Spine J. 2006 May-Jun;6(3):279-81. PubMed PMID:

124: Christie SD, Song J, Fessler RG. Fractures of the upper thoracic spine:
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125: Perez-Cruet MJ, Samartzis D, Fessler RG. Anterior cervical discectomy and
corpectomy. Neurosurgery. 2006 Apr;58(4 Suppl 2):ONS-355-9; discussion ONS-359.
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126: Tredway TL, Santiago P, Hrubes MR, Song JK, Christie SD, Fessler RG.
Minimally invasive resection of intradural-extramedullary spinal neoplasms.
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127: Pytel P, Wollmann RL, Fessler RG, Krausz TN, Montag AG. Degenerative spine
disease : pathologic findings in 985 surgical specimens. Am J Clin Pathol. 2006
Feb;125(2):193-202. PubMed PMID: 16393686.

128: Isaacs RE, Podichetty VK, Santiago P, Sandhu FA, Spears J, Kelly K, Rice L,
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interbody fusion with instrumentation. J Neurosurg Spine. 2005 Aug;3(2):98-105.
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129: Boulos AS, Deshaies EM, Fessler RD, Aketa S, Standard S, Miskolczi L,
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complex endovascular therapies in dogs. J Neurosurg. 2005 Oct;103(4):739-44.
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130: Christie SD, Song JK, Fessler RG. Dynamic interspinous process technology.
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131: Isaacs RE, Podichetty VK, Sandhu FA, Santiago P, Spears JD, Aaronson O,
Kelly K, Hrubes M, Fessler RG. Thoracic microendoscopic discectomy: a human
cadaver study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005 May 15;30(10):1226-31. PubMed PMID:

132: Zipfel GJ, Guiot BH, Fessler RG. Bone grafting. Neurosurg Focus. 2003 Feb
15;14(2):e8. Review. PubMed PMID: 15727429.

133: Cohen-Gadol AA, Piepgras DG, Krishnamurthy S, Fessler RD. Resident duty
hours reform: results of a national survey of the program directors and residents
in neurosurgery training programs. Neurosurgery. 2005 Feb;56(2):398-403;
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134: Lee MC, Wang MY, Fessler RG, Liauw J, Kim DH. Instrumentation in patients
with spinal infection. Neurosurg Focus. 2004 Dec 15;17(6):E7. Review. PubMed
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135: Klimo P Jr, Dailey AT, Fessler RG. Posterior surgical approaches and
outcomes in metastatic spine-disease. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2004 Oct;15(4):425-35.
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136: Le H, Sandhu FA, Fessler RG. Clinical outcomes after minimal-access surgery
for recurrent lumbar disc herniation. Neurosurg Focus. 2003 Sep 15;15(3):E12.
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137: Isaacs RE, Podichetty V, Fessler RG. Microendoscopic discectomy for
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138: Li J, Luan X, Lai Q, Clark JC, McAllister JP 2nd, Fessler R, Diaz FG, Ding
Y. Long-term neuroprotection induced by regional brain cooling with saline
infusion into ischemic territory in rats: a behavioral analysis. Neurol Res. 2004
Sep;26(6):677-83. PubMed PMID: 15327759.

139: Perez-Cruet MJ, Kim BS, Sandhu F, Samartzis D, Fessler RG. Thoracic
microendoscopic discectomy. J Neurosurg Spine. 2004 Jul;1(1):58-63. PubMed PMID:

140: Perez-Arjona EA, DelProsto Z, Fessler RD. Direct percutaneous carotid artery
stenting with distal protection: technical case report. Neurol Res. 2004
Apr;26(3):338-41. PubMed PMID: 15142330.

141: Perez-Arjona E, Fessler RD. Basilar artery to bilateral posterior cerebral
artery ‘Y stenting’ for endovascular reconstruction of wide-necked basilar apex
aneurysms: report of three cases. Neurol Res. 2004 Apr;26(3):276-81. PubMed PMID:

142: Luan X, Li J, McAllister JP 2nd, Diaz FG, Clark JC, Fessler RD, Ding Y.
Regional brain cooling induced by vascular saline infusion into ischemic
territory reduces brain inflammation in stroke. Acta Neuropathol. 2004
Mar;107(3):227-34. Epub 2003 Dec 23. PubMed PMID: 14691633.

143: Sandhu FA, Santiago P, Fessler RG, Palmer S. Minimally invasive surgical
treatment of lumbar synovial cysts. Neurosurgery. 2004 Jan;54(1):107-11;
discussion 111-2. PubMed PMID: 14683546.

144: Fessler RG, Sandhu FA. Minimalism: is less more? Clin Neurosurg.
2003;50:220-7. Review. PubMed PMID: 14677440.

145: Khoo LT, Mikawa K, Fessler RG. A surgical revisitation of Pott distemper of
the spine. Spine J. 2003 Mar-Apr;3(2):130-45. Review. PubMed PMID: 14589227.

146: Fessler RG. Minimally invasive percutaneous posterior lumbar interbody
fusion. Neurosurgery. 2003 Jun;52(6):1512. PubMed PMID: 12800846.

147: Fessler RG. Minimally invasive spine surgery. Neurosurgery. 2002 Nov;51(5
Suppl):Siii-iv. PubMed PMID: 12416530.

148: Khoo LT, Palmer S, Laich DT, Fessler RG. Minimally invasive percutaneous
posterior lumbar interbody fusion. Neurosurgery. 2002 Nov;51(5 Suppl):S166-81.
PubMed PMID: 12234445.

149: Khoo LT, Fessler RG. Microendoscopic decompressive laminotomy for the
treatment of lumbar stenosis. Neurosurgery. 2002 Nov;51(5 Suppl):S146-54. PubMed
PMID: 12234442.

150: Perez-Cruet MJ, Foley KT, Isaacs RE, Rice-Wyllie L, Wellington R, Smith MM,
Fessler RG. Microendoscopic lumbar discectomy: technical note. Neurosurgery. 2002
Nov;51(5 Suppl):S129-36. PubMed PMID: 12234440.

151: Peters KR, Guiot BH, Martin PA, Fessler RG. Vertebroplasty for osteoporotic
compression fractures: current practice and evolving techniques. Neurosurgery.
2002 Nov;51(5 Suppl):S96-103. PubMed PMID: 12234436.

152: Frempong-Boadu AK, Faunce WA, Fessler RG. Endoscopically assisted
transoral-transpharyngeal approach to the craniovertebral junction. Neurosurgery.
2002 Nov;51(5 Suppl):S60-6. PubMed PMID: 12234431.

153: Fessler RG, Khoo LT. Minimally invasive cervical microendoscopic
foraminotomy: an initial clinical experience. Neurosurgery. 2002 Nov;51(5
Suppl):S37-45. PubMed PMID: 12234428.

154: Perez-Cruet MJ, Fessler RG, Perin NI. Review: complications of minimally
invasive spinal surgery. Neurosurgery. 2002 Nov;51(5 Suppl):S26-36. Review.
PubMed PMID: 12234427.

155: Chaturvedi S, Fessler R. Angioplasty and stenting for stroke prevention:
good questions that need answers. Neurology. 2002 Sep 10;59(5):664-8. Review.
PubMed PMID: 12229910.

156: Levy EI, Boulos AS, Fessler RD, Bendok BR, Ringer AJ, Kim SH, Qureshi AI,
Guterman LR, Hopkins LN. Transradial cerebral angiography: an alternative route.
Neurosurgery. 2002 Aug;51(2):335-40; discussion 340-2. PubMed PMID: 12182771.

157: Fessler RD. In less than a lifetime, the treatment of neurovascular disease
has progressed at a dizzying pace. Neurol Res. 2002;24 Suppl 1:S3-6. PubMed PMID:

158: Perez-Arjona EA, DelProposto Z, Sehgal V, Fessler RD. New techniques in
cerebral imaging. Neurol Res. 2002;24 Suppl 1:S17-26. Review. PubMed PMID:

159: Qureshi AI, Suri MF, Ali Z, Kim SH, Lanzino G, Fessler RD, Ringer AJ,
Guterman LR, Hopkins LN. Carotid angioplasty and stent placement: a prospective
analysis of perioperative complications and impact of intravenously administered
abciximab. Neurosurgery. 2002 Mar;50(3):466-73; discussion 473-5. PubMed PMID:

160: Guiot BH, Khoo LT, Fessler RG. A minimally invasive technique for
decompression of the lumbar spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002 Feb
15;27(4):432-8. PubMed PMID: 11840112.


Selby Spine

The Selby Spine Conference is designed for surgeons with a special interest in the treatment of spinal disorders. The latest advances and controversies in the field will be presented through didactic lectures, open discussions, debates and case presentations. Selby Spine grew out of the Keystone Meeting that Dr. David Selby began in Keystone, Colorado in 1986.



Objectively innovate empowered manufactured products whereas parallel platforms. Holisticly predominate testing.

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Brand and business strategy is there to define where brands need to go. And since the world is on fire, that’s a whole lot of fun.

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